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MA English Resume Sample
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TASLEEM ZUBAIR
PAKISTAN CHOWK, KARACHI
Residence: 021-3333333. Tasleem@jobz.pk . Cell: 0333-3333333



OBJECTIVE:
Seeking for the opportunity of employing my substantial educational background, Skills, and passion for writing to an esteemed organization and crafting within the addressees a desire to learn read.

SKILLS:
• Great fluency in spoken English and command over comprehension
• Knowledge of utilizing all the modern teaching aids appropriately and effectively
• Proficiency in handling computer aided tools
• Flexible and adaptable
• Ability of researching new topic areas and maintaining up-to-date subject knowledge.
• Knowledge of all latest trends and vogue of social networking and online marketing
• Proficiency in doing research on any given topic and writing a well crafted research paper
• Know-how of almost all writing formats such as MLA, APA, HARVARD and CHICAGO
Academic education:
• Completed post graduations (M.A) in English Literature from University of Karachi (2011)

• Completed Graduation specializing in English literature and Linguistics from University of Karachi(2009)

• Intermediation in Arts with English Elective as specialization subject from St. Joseph college for women (2007)

• Matriculation in Arts from St. Patrick’s Girls High School (2005)


Extracurricular:
• Participated various presentations and projects during the four year program in the university
• Did many research thesis including a 5000 words research on a literary novel “Lord of the Flies” by William Golding

Interests and Hobbies:
• Trekking and hiking
• Reading classical literature
• listening to music of all genre
• photography
















ABSTRACT
This research paper focuses on William Golding’s novel: “Lord of the Flies”. This research will be based on certain aspects of survival of man in the world with reference to the novel. The aim of this research is to prove that even though man has innate evil within himself, this evil can be defeated through moral consciousness. In this novel Golding has highlighted the instinctive behavior of human beings which is foul and bestial. Nevertheless, Golding has also provided an optimistic view through his good characters. Among the three upright characters Ralph, piggy and Simon two of them, who stand against the evil, are murdered by the savage-like jack and his tribe. However, Ralph’s survival till the end ensures the victory of rationality and morals over irrationality and corruption.
This argument is brought into light with the help of the psycho analytical approach. The Freudian model of the two extremes of id and superego are represented by the central characters of the novel Ralph and Jack. Various critics have also been cited in this paper who holds similar views about the novel and which justifies the argument of this paper.
















William Golding’s, Lord of the Flies could be read as a moralistic fable or a pessimistic allegory on human depravity. In the novel Golding has presented a commentary on the inherent evil that exists in humans and the malicious nature of mankind. However, an alternate view is that man is not all instinctive and through his moral conscience man can overcome his evil instincts. This debate between instincts and moral conscience is central throughout the novel. However, before analyzing the novel it is important to understand what we mean by instincts and moral conscience.

Moral conscience can be briefly defined as ‘reason applied to moral conduct in order to regulate it.’(Encyclopedia Britannica) Consequently, a ‘moral conscience’ act would be based on the judgment of the intellect that distinguishes right from wrong. To elaborate it we can say that human beings are superior to all living beings as humans have various abilities and capabilities. Among these abilities the most important gift in man is that of conscience and self-reflection. It is the ability to think which makes humans different from other living things. Through rationality and conscience human beings propose and consider explanations concerning cause and effect and what is good or bad. Nevertheless it cannot be denied that Humans are in some way or the other affected by their innate evil instincts.

Instincts on the other hand are “impulses or powerful motivations from a subconscious source” (Encyclopedia Britannica). While this response is very important for survival, it is very primitive. It's commonly called the fight or flight response, for obvious reasons. This response might degrade us and makes us use only our lower brain. That means we sometimes cannot think of a logical solution to a problem. Thus, our moral conscience is left behind when we follow our instincts. This clear cut differentiation between instincts and morality can be seen overtly in Golding’s masterpiece.

The fable of the novel is a fairly simple one. “The boys first set out to create a rational society modeled on what grown-ups would do” (Hynes 16). They establish a government and laws, they provide for food and shelter, and they light a signal fire. But this rational society begins to break down almost at once, under two instinctual pressure_ fear and blood lust. The hunters break away from the society and create their own primitive, savage, orgiastic tribal society. They kill two of the three rational boys, and are hunting down the third one when the adult world intervenes.

This conflict between instincts and moral conscience is explicitly depicted in the novel with the help of the two central characters. Ralph represents sensibility, reason, and democracy and has morals where as Jack portrays evil instincts through his desire for killing and power. It is evident throughout that Jack was driven by his evil instincts. For instance, in the fourth chapter the excitement of Jack after hunting the wild pig can be seen through this narrative “He looked in astonishment, no longer at himself but at an awesome stranger. He began to dance and his laughter became a bloodthirsty snarling…. The mask was a thing on its own, behind which Jack hid, liberated from shame and self-consciousness”. This freedom of conscience is a proof that Jack was no longer following his moral conscience and his actions were commanded by his impulses. Behind their painted faces, the children can feel a security, a lack of personal responsibility for the evil they perpetrate, and this desire explains the growth of Jack’s prestige.

The protagonist Ralph is portrayed, on the other hand, as a symbol of rationality and conscience. However, he was not initially the ‘sensible one’ but it was the other character Piggy who served him as an alter ego. Piggy has a powerful belief in the importance of civilized order, and gradually Ralph learns to appreciate his values. And when piggy is killed by Jack and his tribe it becomes the symbol for cruelty and injustice. “His death is a poignant reminder of the unjust and cruel treatment given by society to so many good men” (Cox 120).

For Ralph his moral conscience depends on his actions and his actions are governed by the rules which he thinks are necessary for their survival. However, Jack who is controlled by his instincts only considers the physical needs as essential for their continued existence. This contrast is visible in their dialogs for instance when Ralph shouts at jack

“The rules! You’re breaking the rules!”
“Who cares?” replied jack
“Because the rules are the only thing we’ve got!”
But jack was shouting against him.
“Bollocks to the rules! We’re strong_ we hunt!” (97)

Both these characters are well aware of their strengths, weaknesses, actions and decisions and this can be seen when Ralph cries in desperation “Which is better law and rescue, or hunting and breaking things up?”(98). They become ‘two continents of experience and feeling, unable to communicate’ (Gregor 29). Thus, Jack chooses “the brilliant world of hunting, tactics, fierce exhilaration, and skill where as Ralph holds on to the world of longing and baffled commonsense” (70). The clear cut distinction of instincts and morality of the two characters is shown when Ralph is trying desperately not only to build shelters, but a sense of home; his instincts are to domesticate, to ward off terrorize by social community, to civilize, to provide against the littlelun’s nightmares the security of home. Jack on the other hand rediscovers in himself the instincts and compulsions of the hunter that lie buried in every man. “On all fours like an animal, he learns to flare his nostrils and assess the air, to cast across the ground for spoor. The compulsion to track down and kill was swallowing him up entirely”(37).

Irresponsibility becomes viciousness; and a will imposed in an animal has now turned in destructive violence on a fellow human being. Jack starts to believe that evil and destruction are live forces. In a world of power there are powers at work that are stronger than man. But these powers (beast, devil) can be propitiated by ritual, ceremony, sacrifice. Jack’s return to savagery, taking all the children with him, is portrayed with frightening realism. The lust for killing grows too strong, and Ralph’s inadequate democratic machinery cannot keep it in check.

Golding has used boys to portray the psychological nature of human beings which, according to him, is evil. However, the way these boys behaved in the beginning of the novel was what is expected of children of age five to twelve. In the beginning the children impose civilize standards of conduct on their small community. Also the conch becomes a symbol for rational behavior; no one may speak unless he is holding it. This innocence is obvious also in the episode of the piglet, where even jack can not kill because of the “enormity of the knife descending and cutting into living flesh; because of the unbearable blood” (92).

The rational democracy is not able to cope very well with the fear of the young boys. Gradually, Jack gains more followers. It was not long when all of them, except Piggy and Ralph, gave up to their instincts. “Golding knows boys well enough to make their collapse into savagery plausible, to see them as the cannibals; the authority of the grown ups is all there is to prevent savagery” (Kermode 55). In the absence of the authority of the society evil takes control over them. “Evil is inherent in the human mind itself, whatever innocence may cloak it, ready to put forth its strengths as soon as the occasion is propitious”(Peter 33). They started painting themselves in savage colors, neglect to tend the fire because they are merciless tracking down a wild pig, and establish a wild and ritualistic dance that fascinates them. When one of the boys, having discovered the rational truth of the beast at the top of the mountain, stumbles into the ritualistic dance, he is forced by Jack to enact the role of the pig. The boy is never given the time or the opportunity to make the rational truth clear, “for the dancers, cloaked in frenzy and darkness kills him” (Gindin 67).

Thus, Intelligence fades; irrational taboos and blood-rituals make hopeless the practical task of tending the signal fire or making shelter all these aspirations are smashed and civilized conditioning fades. Piggy’s appeal to what adults might do or think seems so stupid to them. As a result, the children are capable of neither savage nor civil gentleness. Always a little nearer to raw humanity than adults, they slip into a condition of inhumanity, depraved by mind, into the cruelty of hunters with their brutality and torture. They make an unnecessary, evil fortress, they steal, and they abandon all operations aimed at restoring them to civility. Freudians who have found in the novel a conscious dramatization of psychological theory believes that they denied the sustaining and repressing authority of parents, church and state the children forms a new culture the development of which reflects that of genuine primitive society, evolving its gods, demons, its myths, its taboos and rituals. Thus rational democracy is destroyed by the irrational authoritarianism.

There are also other critics who believe that humans have an inherent evil within themselves, For instance, C.B.Cox who claims that “Their drama and conflict typify the inevitable overthrow of all attempts to impose a permanent civilization on the instincts of man”(67). This view holds that rules and principles cannot win from bare animal impulses.

The presence of evil instincts in man is unquestionable. “Reason could stick new labels on the emotions; but it could neither argue nor legislate them out of existence”(Green 82). However, the argument is that man does not have to surrender himself to this evil. His responsibility as a human being, who has rationality and the power of morality, is to overcome this evil through his moral conscience. Humans are a combination of both righteousness and malevolence and it is in the power of man to capitulate either to his evil or show his superiority through morality.

Ralph is not only reasonable and rational because he follows the rules of civilization but he is also realizes that no one is entirely good or evil; there is the existence of both these in human nature. The evil is not in an outside source like a beast but it is within the man himself as the critic Leighton Hodson says “It is the strange mixture of good and evil that exists not only in the material earth but in our own natures”(43). Piggy and Ralph believed in the essential goodness of people and of the island. If there is chaos then it is the fault of individuals, who deviate because there is something wrong with them. They are the deviations which can be vanquished by sanity and responsibility. Ralph and piggy often appealed to adult sanity in their futile attempt to control their world, and suddenly and inconsistently at the end of the novel, adult sanity really exists and Ralph is rescued by the naval officer. Thus, in a way, it is not the victory of barbarism and evil instincts but it is the triumph of moral conscience.





















BIBLIOGRAPHY

• Baker, James. “William Golding: Three Decades of Criticism”. Critical Essays on William Golding. Ed Putnam’s Sons. Boston. 1963. Arizona Quarterly



• Baker, James. “Why It’s No Go”. Critical Essays on William Golding. Ed Putnam’s Sons. Boston. 1963. Arizona Quarterly

• Bender Kimlyn. “The Mask: The Loss of Moral Conscience and Personal Responsibility”. The Elie Wiesel Prize in Ethics. Jamestown College, New York. First prize 1992.


• Burges, Jackson. “Review: Untitled”. Novel’s Translation to Flim by Peter Brook. Published by University of California Press.
www.jstor.org/stable/1210870.

• Cox, C.B. “On lord of the flies (1960)’. William Golding: novels 1954-67. Ed Norman page. A case book series. Hampshire. 1985. The Macmillan press Ltd.


• Gindin, James. “Gimmick and Metaphor in the Novels of William Golding (1960)”. William Golding: novels 1954-67. Ed Norman page. A case book series. The Macmillan press Ltd.

• Golding, William. Lord of the flies. Faber & Faber. Boston. 1958.


• Golding, William. “Nobel Lecture 1983”. Critical Essays on William Golding. Ed Putnam’s Sons. Boston. 1963. Arizona Quarterly.


• Green, Peter. “The World of William Golding (1963)’. William Golding: novels 1954-67. Ed Norman page. A case book series. Hampshire. 1985. The Macmillan press Ltd


• Gregor, Ian. “William Golding a Critical Study”. Lord of the flies to the Spire. Ed Faber and Faber. 24 Russell square, London. 1967.

• Hodson, Leighton. Writer and critics: Golding. Ed A. Norman Jeffares and R. C. Lorimer. Edinburgh. 1969. Oliver and Boyd Ltd



• Hymes, Samuel. “William Golding’s Lord of the Flies”. Critical Essays on William Golding. Ed Putnam’s Sons. Boston. 1963. . Arizona Quarterly



• J.A, Had field. “The Instincts”. The Psychology of Power. New York. 1924. Pal grave Macmillan


• McEwen, Neil. “Introduction to Golding’s novel”. The Survival of the novel. Ed Pal grave Macmillan. 1981.


• McEwen, Neil. “Golding’s Lord of the Flies, Ballantyne’s Coral Island and the Critics”. The survival of the novel. Ed. Pal grave Macmillan. 1981.



• Oldsey, Bern and Stanley Weintraub. “Hebrew Beelzebub”. Lord of the Flies: Beelzebub revisited. Vol 23. Published by national council teachers of English. 1963.


• Peter, john. “The Fables of William Golding”. William Golding: novels 1954-67. Ed Norman Page. A case book series. The Macmillan press Ltd. Hampshire. 1985.



• Riker, William. “The political psychology of rational choice theory”. Special Issue: Political Economy and Political Psychology. Vol.16. published by international society of political psychology. March 1995. www.jstor.org/stable/3791448


• Santrock, John. “Socio-Emotional Development in Middle and Late Childhood”. Life Span Development. 11th edition. McGraw- Hill International Edition.

• Tiger, Virginia. “William Golding’s “wooden world”: Religion Rites in Rites of Passage”. Critical Essays on William Golding. Ed Putnam’s Sons. Arizona Quarterly. Boston. 1963.
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